Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay on Dr. Martin Luther King’s Letter From Birmingham...

In April of 1963, locked in a Birmingham jail, Martin Luther King Jr. wrote, â€Å"Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation†. In Dr. King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail he accurately displays his distinctive ability to influence public opinion by appropriating ideas from the Bible, the Constitution, and other canonical texts (Autobiography); by establishing his credibility, appealing to the audience’s logic, and invoking the emotional aspects of the African-American plight in this era. Within this letter, Dr. King starts out by establishing his creditability†¦show more content†¦It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire † (King) Meanwhile, Dr. King also appeals to the logical side of the men within the letter, to lead them to the bigger picture of the injustice faced by African-Americans during this era. Dr. King uses facts and United States laws to prove that his actions were not untimely but in contrast these actions were overdue and that in fact he was not an outsider, but rather an invited guest.â€Å"So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here, I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds.† (King) He goes on by saying â€Å"Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of Birminghams economic community. In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants --- for example, to remove the stores’ humiliating racial signs. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. As the weeks and months went by, we realized that we were the victims of aShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Dr Martin Luther Kings Letter from a Birmingham Jail610 Words   |  2 Pagesanalysis Letter from Birmingham Jail by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr :Letter from Birmingham Jail is a powerful piece of writing that graces the writings by Martin Luther. Part of the power lies in the use of rhetorical devices such as allusion to Biblical and historical figures, metaphors, and anaphora and how Luther used these stylistic devices and literary approaches to express his message, intention and express the mood of the letter making a masterpiece like no other letters before. Read MoreLetter From Birmingham Jail Analysis1617 Words   |  7 Pagesand Civil Rights activist, Mr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King was a middle class, black man with a life-long devotion of implementing ethnic equality to African Americans nationwide. Following one of Rev. King’s peaceful protests in Birmingham, Alabama, he was jailed on accounts of â€Å"parading without a permit† (King 3). While in jail, Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote a response to â€Å"A Call For Unity,† written by eight white clergymen of Birmingham, regarding King’s actions as â€Å"unwise and untimely†Read MorePersuasive Speech : Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.1334 Words   |  6 PagesIn any good speech, the most important part of the speech is not what is said during the speech, but what the audience feels and remembers after the speech was over. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a powerful advocate of African American rights, was an expert at convincing his audience to fe el and react to his speeches however he wanted them to. One of the main ways he achieved this was through the use of the artistic proofs. The ‘artistic proofs’ is a term coined by the ancient greek philosopherRead MoreLetter From The Birmingham County Jail844 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Letter from the Birmingham County Jail† Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement was a time in which African Americans were setting out to end segregation, specifically in the south. During this time period, African Americans were treated unequally from the white people. African Americans were unable to eat in the same restaurants, shop in the same stores, or even drink out of the same drinking fountain. Dr. King had a vision that one dayRead MoreEssay on Letter From Birmingham Jail, by Martin Luther King Jr.742 Words   |  3 PagesDr. Martin Luther King Jr. one of many great influential speakers wrote a life changing letter after being arrested for peacefully protesting African American rights. While sitting in jail Dr. King received a letter from clergymen questioning his motives and timings for being in Birmingham. In a response Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. writes a â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail† vividly expressing physical and emotional purposes for his presence in Birmingham, AL. First, in the â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail†Read MoreLetter From Birmingham Jail By Dr. Martin Luther King1510 Words   |  7 PagesLetter from Birmingham Jail was a letter written by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. from a solitary confinement cell in Birmingham, Alabama. Some portions of the letter were written and gradually smuggled out by King s lawyer on scraps of paper including, by some reports, rough jailhouse toilet paper. Violent racist terror against African Americans was so horrible in Birmingham in the summer of 1963 that the city was being referred to by some locals as â€Å"Bombingham†. King had been arrested while participatingRead MoreWhy Kings Letter from a Birmingham Jail Resounds throughout American History?926 Words   |  4 PagesTest of Time: Why Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail Resounds Throughout American History Dr. Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail is a direct response to A Call for Unity, a letter penned by eight Alabama clergymen including one rabbi. In A Call for Unity, the eight clergymen decry the peaceful protests organized by Dr. King and his fellow civil rights activists. The clergymen claim that the protests are unwise and untimely. In his response written from jail, Dr. King outlinesRead MoreAntigone And Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. s Letter From Birmingham Jail1233 Words   |  5 PagesIn Sophocles’ Antigone and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail†, Antigone and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. used resistance against powerful leaders to follow their morals and make a statement. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s approach towards the reconstruction of society’s cultural understanding of segregation used civil disobedience in a more public and large-scale approach, whereas Antigone’s use of civil disobedience defied the law in a much more private, small-scale way toRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr : Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pages Martin Luther King Jr: Letter from Birmingham Jail Hao Ran Hu SUNY Broome Hao Ran Hu Global History Professor St.Clair 2016 Martin Luther King Jr: Letter from Birmingham Jail One of the interesting Documents in World History is the ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’ by Martin Luther King Jr who was born as Michael King in 1929 in Atlanta. His parents wereRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Letter From Birmingham Jail972 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote Letter from Birmingham Jail that went on to become one of the most controversial and important pieces of work during the Civil Rights Movement. Like many other well written rhetorics, King alludes and uses Aristotle’s three main appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. How does King uses these appeals in his rhetoric? King effectively uses these appeals to evoke his audience’s emotion to feel remorseful for the extremity that African Americans went through and

Friday, May 8, 2020

Apple Inc, By Steve Wozniak And Ronald Wayne - 2469 Words

Apple- Not the Fruit Imagine a world without Apple, without iPods, without Macs; in the world we live in today that seems almost impossible, but Apple did not get to where it stands today overnight, the company has had its share of troubles. Apple Computers was founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne; together they donned the generation of affordable personal computers and was the first step in the advancement of the major corporation known today as Apple Inc. Apple Inc. has become a major competitor in sales despite being close to bankrupt many times because of their technological advancement, knowledge of the consumer, and the development of a strong user interface. Throughout the course of Apple’s struggle the corporation has remained persistent in the advancement of technology as we know it today. It all started with a dream, to make a computer more personal, one computer for every one person; and in this area Steve Jobs strived to be the best. He called on Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne to start this venture into the vast world of computer sales; with Jobs’ vast knowledge of physics they made the first Apple Computer model, and the company was set off to a good start. Within the first 3 months of Apples beginning Wayne decided to sell his share of the company and becoming the forgotten founder of Apple Computers. That left Jobs and Wozniak to take on the challenge of advancing technology by themselves(Linzmayer 3,4). Jobs realized early inShow MoreRelatedApple Research Paper1268 Words   |  6 PagesApple Inc. was founded on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, CA and was incorporated on January 3, 1977 (Apple,  2010). The company was founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Jobs also asked his former colleague from Atari, Ronald Wayne to join them in their startup. Wayne designed the first Apple logo. In early 1976 Jobs approached a local company store, The Byte Shop, said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came completely assembled (Foljanty,  2010). The shop ordered 50 Apple I computersRead MoreThe Apple Inc. Company1325 Words   |  6 PagesResearch The Apple Inc. is a multinational corporation that creates electronics, personal computers, computer software, and commercial servers, and is a distributor of media content. The company also sells and delivers digital content through iTunes and the App store.The founders of Apple are Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne. Apple was founded April 1st, 1976, and incorporated January 3rd, 1977 in Cupertino, California. To learn about the history of Apple, it was important for me toRead MoreA Report On The Work Experience And Life Of Apple Essay1505 Words   |  7 PagesCONTENT 1. Acknowledgment†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4. History of Apple†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4.1.Macbook†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4.2. NeXT†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 4.3. NeXT and Apple†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4.4. ipod 4.5. ipad†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to everyone who gave meRead MoreBehind The Apple : Steve Paul Jobs1192 Words   |  5 Pages â€Æ' Behind the Apple â€Å"Steve Paul Jobs† Who was Steve Paul Jobs? Was Steve Jobs always the Man, the Myth and the Legend behind the Apple Company? What lead Jobs to his dreams, his beliefs, and his fortune? Steve Jobs his fall from Grace to his reinvention of the Apple Company. The birth of Steven Paul â€Å"Steve† Jobs took place on February 24, 1955 to a young lady by the name of Joanne Schieble. She had Jobs at the tender age of twenty-three while attending graduate school. Schieble’s fatherRead MoreSteve Paul Jobs And The Legend Behind The Apple Company1190 Words   |  5 Pages â€Æ' Behind the Apple â€Å"Steve Paul Jobs† Who was Steve Paul Jobs? Was Steve Jobs always the Man, the Myth and the Legend behind the Apple Company? What lead Jobs to his dreams, his beliefs, and his fortune? Steve Jobs his fall from Grace to his reinvention of the Apple Company. Steven Paul â€Å"Steve† Jobs was born on February 24, 1955 to a young lady by the name of Joanne Schieble. She had Jobs at the age of twenty-three while attending graduate school. Schieble father didn’t agree with her havingRead MoreSteve Jobs And The Successful Startup Of Apple831 Words   |  4 PagesSteve Jobs may be the most recognizable founder name as it relates to Apple, but two other men played equally important roles in the successful startup of Apple: both Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. Jobs met Wozniak, or more commonly known as Woz, in a computer club that was held in a garage in a California park (Rawlinson). Jobs and Wayne, on the other hand, were coworkers at Atari and through their time together, they became friends. However, Wayne’s time working with Jobs and Woz was short livedRead MoreInternship Opportunities At Alcorn State University Essay1085 Words   |  5 Pagesidea has helped in bringing out many new ideas from each and every corner of the world. Apple.Inc has been considered as a world s best opportunity provider according to many researches. This created a interest in me to choose this company. As Apple is considered as a top-most company in the world, its selection procedure for the internship is a little difficult when compared to other companies. This selection process may include online interview, face-to-face interview, questionnaires, problemRead MoreFinancial Analysis And Assessment Of Apple Inc. Essay937 Words   |  4 Pagesand assessment of Apple Inc. from the years of 2005 to 2009. The evaluation is based on the numbers calculated from the data on Apple Inc.’s Financial Performance Worksheets. This paper covers three areas. The first part of the paper contains a brief history of Apple and the position of the organization in the market of computers. The second part is a calculation of Apple s performance and the reasons for their success. Finally, a conclusion and recommendation for Apple Inc. According to PoeterRead MoreThe Great Wall Of China2440 Words   |  10 Pageswhich affect the human civilization by revolutionize the way we live. Apple Inc. is one of the organizations that has significantly changed the world, revolutionize the way human live in the 21th century. The products Apple had impact the world is remarkable everyone and every tech industry had follow the foot step of the 21th modern Apple world. Steve Jobs, the co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer (CEO) of Apple Inc. was the indispensable leader of the foundation tenant of the companyRead MoreBusiness Their Ownership, Purpose Between Apple Inc And British Red Cross A Non For Profit Business1551 Words   |  7 Pagesbusiness their ownership, purpose between Apple inc a PLC and the British Red cross a non-for-profit business. Apple inc is an american multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Its best-known hardware products are the Mac personal computers, the iPod portable media player, the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer. Apple has around 437 stories around the world and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Alternative Fuels The industrial gas turbine Free Essays

Investigation of alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines Tamal Bhattacharjee, Paul Nihill, Cormac Bulfin, Ishank Arora Contents 1. Abstract4 2. Introduction4 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Alternative Fuels: The industrial gas turbine or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hydrogen5 3. 1Production5 3. 1. 1Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons5 3. 1. 2Water Splitting5 3. 1. 3Gasification of Waste Biomass to produce syngas6 3. 1. 4The process7 3. 1. 5Application to industrial gas turbines8 4. Methanol9 4. 1Abstract9 4. 2Introduction9 4. 3History10 4. 4Manufacturing Process10 4. 4. 1 Production of methanol from synthesis gas10 4. Industrial Process11 4. 5. 1STEP-1: Feed Production11 4. 5. 2STEP-2: Reforming11 4. 5. 3STEP-3: Methanol Synthesis12 4. 5. 4STEP-4: Methanol Purification12 4. 6How it works on a gas turbine12 4. 7Feasibility15 4. 8Advantages Disadvantages16 4. 9Conclusion17 5. Power Alcohol17 5. 1Introduction17 5. 2Chemistry18 5. 3Production18 5. 3. 1Ethanol from sugar cane18 5. 3. 2Fermentation18 5. 3. 3Distillation19 5. 3. 4Fractional Distillation19 5. 4Air pollution21 5. 5Advantages23 5. 6Disadvantages23 6. References24 1. Abstract The industrial gas turbine is a key part of modern electricity generation. In 1998 15% of electric power was produced by gas turbines. Due to their efficiency, compactness, reliability and relatively low capital cost 81% of new electric power demand will be met by industrial gas turbines. Gas turbines must meet very strict NOx CO and CO2 regulations. (GL Juste 2006). As the popularity of gas turbines and combined heat and power generation plants increases research has turned to cheaper and more environmentally friendly fuels for gas turbines. Methane C2H4 is the main fossil fuel used in gas turbines today but with increased regulations on carbon emissions combined with the increasing cost of fossil fuels, research is turning to alternative fuels which may power gas turbines into the future. This literature review explores potential liquid and gas alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines along with some of the latest research in the area and some examples of the successful industrial applications. 2. Introduction The increasing cost of fossil fuels, the fact that they are a finite resource and the environmental effects of their combustion means that research into alternative fuels is one of the largest and most varied areas of scientific investigation in progress today. As with all scientific research, some will be successful and form the basis of future energy production and some will be either too inefficient or impractical to be implemented in industry. It is interesting to note that some of the methods which seemed impractical even 10 years ago are now being introduced owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Fuels derived from biomass and gasification of sewage sludge and municipal waste and some methods of hydrogen fuel production appear to hold the most promise. â€Å"Different global energy scenario studies indicate that in India biomass may contribute much more: up to 30% of the energy supply by 2100† (K. K. Gupta et al 2010) Gas turbines and combined heat and power (CHP) systems are at the forefront of future European strategies on energy production with current efficiencies for combined cycle facilities above 60%. â€Å"The main CHP targets are the reduction of the overall costs and the development of above 40 kW biomass-fired systems†¦.. Gas turbines enjoy certain merits relative to steam turbines and diesel engines. They have high grade waste heat, lower weight per unit power, dual fuel capability, low maintenance cost, low vibration levels, low capital cost, compact size, short delivery time, high flexibility and reliability, fast starting time, lower manpower, and have better environmental performance. † (P. A. Pilavachi et al 2000) This project focuses on alternative fuels as applied to industrial gas turbines owing to their projected increase in popularity in the short to medium term at least. 3. Hydrogen 3. 1Production 3. 1. Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons The bulk of hydrogen fuel production is currently via steam reforming of natural gas this process involves the reaction of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons with high temperature steam to produce varying amounts of CO and H2. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons does not eliminate CO2 but it greatly reduces the amount which is discharged into the atmosphere . Steam reforming of hydrocarbons is an efficient way of reducing CO2 emissions. In addition to the H2 produced during gasification a low temperature gas shift reaction with the remaining carbon monoxide can produce further H2. The process of steam reforming natural gas along with the gas shift reaction are governed by the chemical equations below. (K. K. Gupta et al 2010) Steam Reforming: CH4 + H2O – CO + 3H2 ? H = +251 kJ/mol Gas Shift: CO + H2O – CO2 +H2 ? H= -42 kJ/mol (K. K. Gupta et al 2010) The release of CO2 can be completely eliminated in a large plant where the CO2 is captured and injected into an oil or gas reservoir. It is currently disputed between scientists whether or not the production of H2 in this way releases more CO2 than directly burning fossil fuels. 3. 1. 2Water Splitting There is currently a lot of research concerning the splitting of water to produce H2. This method is yet to find industrial application as it takes a lot of energy to split water and the only sustainable method is the use of renewable technologies to provide the energy. The hydrogen is more likely to be used as a storage medium when the power generated by renewable technologies is not required. An example of this would be the storage of power from a wind turbine during the day. There is a lot of very interesting research into water-splitting with many methods being explored simultaneously. Thermo chemical water splitting using solar power is an interesting option. Direct thermal water splitting is impractical due to the energy requirements to heat the water to 25000K. But if the water is reacted with metal oxides and redox materials it can be achieved at a much lower temperature. The oxygen and hydrogen are released at different stages eliminating the need for separation. This process can be conducted in a cycle that produces H2 more efficiently from solar radiation. 3. 1. 3Gasification of Waste Biomass to produce syngas A Practical Example of waste to energy conversion is the Pyromex waste to energy facility in Germany. The Pyromex system is currently being used successfully to gasify industrial waste in a purpose built plant in Munich Germany. Due to the fact there are no gaseous emissions from the system there is no need for the construction of smoke stacks and the system is considered separate to incineration by EU authorities. Emissions from the plant are in the form of solid sand like dry waste. The waste composition is tabulated below and shows how far below allowable limits the process is. The raw material in the process is otherwise unrecyclable waste products and the system can treat sewage sludge, plastics, fly ash from power plants and various other waste products. The system has the potential to be a major contributor to the Hydrogen Economy. The prototype plant working on a throughput of 25 ton/day had the potential to produce approximately 2150 kWh by a combined heat to electricity and syngas engine generator system. If used in combination with an industrial gas turbine there is no doubt that owing to the greater efficiency this power output could be improved. Fig. 1 – Exhaust gas emissions (Pyromex ®) 3. 1. 4The process The material to be gasified is introduced into the slowly turning reactor through a two stage tank system. With this setup an oxygen free environment can be ensured inside the reactor pipe, where the conversion of the organics to syngas takes place at over 1000 °C. The produced gas is then cleaned with a simple acid and an alkaline scrubber. Even though the temperatures within the reactor are far above 1000 °C, the surface remains cool enough to be touched by hand. The PYROMEX gasification is a closed circuit process and therefore no emissions are released into the environment. The process flow chart below gives a better understanding of the workings of the plant. This process can be easily scaled. And there are numerous plants completed and in the process of construction in Germany and the U. S. Fig. 2 – Gasification process of producing syngas from waste biomass (Pyromex ®) 3. 1. 5Application to industrial gas turbines Once the hydrogen has been produced it can be mixed with carbon monoxide which can also be produced efficiently using solar power. This syngas can be used in an Industrial gas turbine with some modifications to the fuel nozzle system and careful control of the fuel air ratio to produce electricity. In the case of liquid fuel turbines the hydrogen can be converted to various hydrocarbons using the Fischer-Tropsch process. The use of hydrogen in a gas turbine is a relatively new concept with the use of high hydrogen content syngas becoming an attractive area for research. Unfortunately the use of hydrogen rich gas in a conventional gas turbine involves some tweaks to the ystem. The natural gas lean-premixed combustors have to undergo some modifications if fed with hydrogen rich fuels due to the combined effect of hydrogen shorter auto-ignition delay and faster flame speed. (Paulo Gobbato et al 2010) One of the routes with the highest potential is the pre combustion route utilizing coal in an integrated gasification and combine cycle (IGCC). The challenge in utilizing hydrogen rich fuel is principally associated wi th its reduced auto-ignition delay time, which can be addressed in one of three approaches: 1. De-rating the engine – allowing the same mixing time by increasing the auto-ignition delay time through altering the characteristics of the vitiated air (i. e. the inlet temperature of the flow to the SEV). 2. Decreasing the reactivity of the fuel – i. e. by dilution with an inert gas. 3. Modifying the hardware – either to reduce the mixer residence time in line with the reduced auto ignition delay time or develop a concept which is less influenced by the reactivity of the fuel. (Nils Erland et al 2012) 4. Methanol 4. 1Abstract 5. When methanol is intended to be used as fuel for gas turbine, it is very important to enhance overall thermal efficiency of the gas turbine system, and to make it competitive with conventional oil or gas fuels. There are many ways to accomplish this. Combined cycle is not, however, a proper way, as this could also be applied to conventional fuel. Noting the unique characteristic of methanol, the steam reforming regenerative cycle was investigated by many institutions. In this scheme, wasted heat of the gas turbine exhaust gas is transferred to reformed gas. And it is recycled back to the gas turbine as a part of fuel, thus resulting in increased overall efficiency of the gas turbine. Thermal decomposition of methanol is also an endothermic reaction and may be applied to the regenerative cycle. In either case, however, only a part of the waste heat is recovered. Hence the hybrid system with combined cycle was proposed to achieve additional heat recovery. But this is a complex system. 4. 2Introduction 6. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH. . 8. Fig. 3 – Chemical formulation of Methanol 9. Methanol can be used as alternative fuel in gas turbine. Methanol is made from natural gas, coal, and biomass. This was one of the older alternative fuels. Like Ethanol, Methanol is very good for blending with gasoline to replace the harmful octane enhancers. The benefits of using Methanol are that it reduces emissions, which has a significant effect on bettering the environment. Methanol can easily be blended with gasoline. It also has a lower risk of flammability than normal gasoline. Another benefit of Methanol is that it is made from domestically renewable sources. Methanol can also be used to make the octane enhancer MTBE. Another huge possible benefit of Methanol is that it can be made into hydrogen. 10. 4. 3History 11. Methanol has been tested as a gas turbine fuel in the U. S. In 1974, a 12-hour test was conducted by Turbo Power and Marine in a 20 MW gas turbine at the Bayboro Station of Florida Power Corporation. The methanol was fired as a liquid. NOx emissions were 74% less than those from No. 2 Distillate, and CO emissions were comparable (Power 1979). In 1978 and 1979, EPRI and Southern California Edison Company sponsored a 523-hour test at SCE’s Ellwood Energy Support Facility, using one half of 52 4. 4Manufacturing Process 4. 4. 1 Production of methanol from synthesis gas 12. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen react over a catalyst to produce methanol. Today, the most widely used catalyst is a mixture of Cu (Copper), zinc oxide, and alumina first used by ICI in 1966. At 5–10 M Pa (50–100 atm) and 250  °C, it can catalyze the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen with high selectivity (99. 8%): 13. CO + 2 H2 CH3OH†¦.. It is worth noting that the production of synthesis gas from methane produces three moles of hydrogen gas for every mole of carbon monoxide, while the methanol synthesis consumes only two moles of hydrogen gas per mole of carbon monoxide. One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject carbon dioxide into the methanol synthesis reactor, where it, too, reacts to form methanol according to the equation: 14. CO2 + 3 H2 CH3OH + H2O. 15. Some chemists believe that the certain catalysts synthesize methanol using CO2 as an intermediary, and consuming CO only indirectly. 6. CO2 + 3 H2 CH3OH + H2O; where the H2O byproduct is recycled via the gas shift reaction: 17. CO + H2O CO2 + H2, 18. This gives an overall reaction, which is the same as listed above. 19. CO + 2 H2 CH3OH 4. 5Industrial Process Fig. 4 – Industrial process for creating Methanol 4. 5. 1STEP-1: Feed Production 20. The two main two feed stocks, natural gas and water, both require purification before use. Natu ral Gas contains low levels of sulphur compounds and undergo a desulphurization process to reduce, the sulphur levels of less than one part per million. Impurities in the water are reduced to undetectable or parts per billion levels before being converted to steam and added to the process. If not removed, these impurities can result in reduced heat efficiency and significant damages to major pieces of equipment. 4. 5. 2STEP-2: Reforming 21. It is the process which transforms the methane and the steam to intermediate reactants of hydrogen, carbon-dioxide and carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide is also added to the feed gas stream at this stage to produce a mixture of components in the ideal ratio to efficiently produce methanol. This process is carried out in a Reformer furnace which is heated by burning natural gas as fuel. 22. Reaction: Reaction: 4. 5. 3STEP-3: Methanol Synthesis 23. After removing excess heat from the reformed gas it is compressed before being sent to the methanol production stage in the synthesis reactor. Here the reactants are converted to methanol and separated out as a crude product with a composition of methanol (68%) and water (31%). Traces of byproducts are also formed. Methanol conversion is at a rate of 5% per pass hence there is a continual recycling of the un- reacted gases in to the synthesis loop. 24. Reaction: 25. 4. 5. 4STEP-4: Methanol Purification 26. The 68% methanol solution is purified in two distinct steps in tall distillation columns called the topping column and refining column to yield a refined product with a purity of 99% methanol classified as Grade AA refined methanol. 27. The methanol process is tested at various stages and the finished product is stored in a large secured tank age area off the plant until such time that it is ready to be delivered to customers. 4. 6How it works on a gas turbine 28. Chemical reaction involved is: It reacts with water to form carbon di oxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H). 9. CH3OH + H2O = CO2 + 3H2 30. The reaction is endothermic and absorbs waste heat at about 300oC. The system performance was predicted using in house process simulator called CAPES and found thermal efficiency of approx. 50% (LHV) when turbine inlet temperature is 1,100oC and compression ratio is 14. The schematic diagram given below illustrates its function. 31. 32. Fig. 5 – Methanol fueled gas turbine process 33. 34. The performance of the gas turbine with steam reforming was recalculated using PRO/II. The same adiabatic efficiency of 87% for compressor and 90% for turbine were used. Similar value of overall thermal efficiency of approx. 50% was obtained as shown in Table-1. For reference, the performance of air heating system was also investigated. In this case, thermal efficiency was in the same level as reforming but total heat transfer area is 1. 7 times of steam reforming case. Let’s explain model making of steam reformer by PRO/II. After defining stoichiometric data for steam reforming reaction, Gibbs reactor was used for equilibrium calculation at specified temperature. For combustor design, two combustion reactions were defined. Then two conversion reactors were connected in series and set the conversion parameter to 1. Both reactors are defined as adiabatic. 35. Heat exchangers having phase change were split into 10 to 20 zones and flow configurations were set to true counter flow. Minimum pinch points were set to 10 to 20 oC. Pressure drop of each exchangers were set to 0. 02-0. 01 atm and overall heat transfer coefficient were set to100kcal/h C. Flow Scheme| unit| Fig-1| Fig. -2| Waste Heat Recovery| | Air Heating Methanol Evap. | Steam Reforming, Water Injection Methanol Evap. Turbine Inlet Temperature| oC| 1,100| 1,100| Compression Ratio| -| 14| 14| Methanol Rate| kgmol/h| 0. 133| 0. 133| Stoichiometric Air Rate| kgmol/h| 1| 1| Air Rate| kgmol/h| 4. 150| 2. 600| Reforming Water Rate| kgmol/h| -| 0. 133| Total Water Rate| kgmol/h| -| 0. 720| Excess Air Mol Ratio| -| 4. 150| 2. 600| Water/Air Mol Ratio| -| 0. 000| 0. 277| Water/Methanol Mol Ratio| -| 0. 000| 5. 414| 1st Compressor Power| kW| -12. 472| - 7. 814| 1st Turbine Power| kW| 24. 128| 19. 750| Water Injection Pump| kW| -| -0. 006| Net Shaft Power| kW| 11. 656| 11. 930| Power Output| kW| 11. 423| 11. 691| Methanol Heat of Combustion (HHV)| kW| 47. 149| 23. 574| Methanol HHV| kJ/mol| 638. 10| 638. 10| Overall Thermal Efficiency (HHV)| %| 48. 45| 49. 59| Compressor Adiabatic Efficiency| %| 87| 87| Turbine Adiabatic Efficiency| %| 90| 90| Generator Efficiency| %| 98| 98| Methanol Evaporator Area/Pinch Point| m2/oC| 0. 140/10| 0. 138/5| Methanol Reformer Area/Reaction Temp. | m2/oC| -| 0. 201/300| Air Heater Area/Pinch Point/Max. Temp. | m2/oC| 2. 972/10/525| 0| Water Evaporator Area/Pinch Point| m2| -| 1. 452/10| Total Surface Area| m2| 3. 112| 1. 791| Exhaust Temperature| oC| 335. 3| 102. 5| Table 1 – Methanol Fuel Gas Turbine with Steam Reforming Water Injection or Air Heating 4. 7Feasibility 36. MW, twin engine, gas turbine generator unit supplied by Turbo Power and Marine Systems, Inc. (Edison Co. 1981). The methanol was fired as a liquid. Some fuel system modifications were performed to permit the higher mass and volumetric flow of methanol to achieve base load output. Some elastomers in the fuel system were replaced with materials impervious to methanol attack. The tests showed: â€Å"Operations on methanol are as flexible as on natural gas or distillate fuel. The ability to start, stop, accelerate, decelerate, perform automatic synchronization, and respond to control signals is equal to operations on either natural gas or distillate fuel. Turbine performance on methanol is improved over other fuels due to higher mass flow and the lower combustion temperatures resulting from methanol operations. Oxides of nitrogen emissions on them ethanol-fueled turbine, without water injection, were approximately 80% of the emissions of the distillate-fueled turbine with water injection. There was a significant reduction in particulate emissions during methanol operation. An additional reduction in oxides of nitrogen emission was obtained during operations of the methanol-fueled turbine with water injection. No significant problems occurred during the test that could be attributed to methanol. The hot end inspection indicated cleaner components within the methanol-fueled turbine. † During 1984-1985, GE conducted methanol combustion tests of heavy-duty gas turbine combustors in a private study for Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. This work is unpublished. The tests were conducted at GE’s Gas Turbine. Development Laboratory in Schenectady, N . Y. Tests were performed with an MS6001B full-scale combustor representative of GE heavy-duty gas turbine combustors, and an MS7001 developmental dry low NOx combustor. Then ethanol was fired as a liquid, â€Å"dry† and also with water addition. A high-pressure centrifugal pump was used to supply the methanol to the combustor. The tests demonstrated that methanol fuel can be successfully burned in GE heavy-duty combustors without requiring major modifications to the combustor. NOx emissions were approximately 20% of those for the same combustor firing NO. 2 distillate at the same firing temperature. With water addition, NOx levels of 9 ppmv could be achieved. Liner metal temperatures, exit pattern factors, and dynamic pressures were not significantly affected by methanol combustion and met GE criteria for acceptable performance. The results are valid for 2000 F firing temperature machines (E-class). Additional work would be required to confirm performance with methanol fuel, elevated firing temperatures of the F series of machines. Vaporized methanol will reduce NOx 5% to 10% (relative to CH4 emissions) whereas liquid methanol will reduce NOx 30% relative to CH4 emissions. Water content in the methanol provides further NOx reduction. In 1984, a field test demonstration was performed at the University of California at Davis (California Energy Commission 1986). Methanol was fired in a 3. 25 MW Allison 501-KB gas turbine for 1,036 hours. Low NOx emissions were observed and were further reduced by mixing water with the methanol. Problems encountered with the traditional gas turbine fuel pump were bypassed by using an off-board centrifugal pump. 4. 8Advantages Disadvantages 37. Methanol is a liquefied form of methane, a naturally-occurring gaseous hydrocarbon produced by decomposition. Currently, methane is burned as a ‘waste† gas at oil drilling platforms, coal mining sites, landfills, and sewage treatment plants. The advantage is methane, and its derivative methanol is that it is extremely plentiful; drilling for oil, mining coal, and the decomposition of organic matter all produce methane already. As a hydrocarbon similar to propane and petroleum, methane is a very powerful, explosive gas that can easily take the place of petroleum without marked decline in power or major retooling of existing technologies. The disadvantages of methanol is the process by which methane is converted into a liquid at normal temperatures; by mixing methane with natural gas and gasoline, methane is converted into methanol. But the need for gasoline does not entirely wean the United States off of oil, so its â€Å"alternative† status is questionable. Additionally, the process to capture, store, and convert methane is prohibitively expensive compared to gasoline. 38. 4. 9Conclusion 39. Methanol is considered a superior turbine fuel, with the promise of low emissions, excellent heat rate, and high power output. The gas turbine fuel system must be modified to accommodate the higher mass and volumetric flow of methanol (relative to natural gas or distillate). The low flash point of methanol necessitates explosion proofing. The low flash point also dictates that startup be performed with a secondary fuel such as distillate or natural gas. Testing to date has been with methanol as a liquid. GE is comfortable with methanol as a liquid or vapor. GE is prepared to make commercial offers for new or modified gas turbines utilizing methanol fuel in liquid or vapor form based on the earlier experience. Some combustion testing may be required for modern machines applying for very low NOx permits. 5. Power Alcohol 5. 1Introduction Power Alcohol is a mixture of petroleum and ethanol in different proportions and due to these proportions different names are given to each blend like:- 1. As a blend of 10 percent ethanol with 90 percent unleaded gasoline called â€Å"E-10 Unleaded†. 2. As a component of reformulated gasoline, both directly and/or as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). 3. As a primary fuel with 85 parts of ethanol blended with 15 parts of unleaded gasoline called â€Å"E-85. (Rex Weber 2003) When mixed with unleaded gasoline, ethanol increases octane levels, decreases exhaust emissions, and extends the supply of gasoline. Ethanol in its liquid form, called ethyl alcohol, can be used as a fuel when blended with gasoline or in its original state. Well the production of ethanol fuel began way back in1907 but Ethanol use and production has increased considerably during the 1980s and 1990s not just due to the lack of fossil fuels but was also due to several other factors 1. Ethanol reduces the country’s dependence on imported oil, lowering the trade deficit and ensuring a dependable source of fuel should foreign supplies be interrupted. 2. Farmers see an increased demand for grain which helps to stabilize prices. 3. The quality of the environment improves. Carbon monoxide emissions are reduced, and lead and other carcinogens (cancer causing agents) are removed from gasoline. 5. 2Chemistry Glucose (a simple sugar) is created in the plant by  photosynthesis. 6 CO2  + 6 H2O + light C6H12O6  + 6 O2 During  ethanol fermentation,  glucose  is decomposed into ethanol and  carbon dioxide. C6H12O6   2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2  + heat During combustion ethanol reacts with  oxygen  to produce carbon dioxide,  water, and heat: C2H5OH + 3 O2   2 CO2  + 3 H2O + heat After doubling the combustion reaction because two molecules of ethanol are produced for each glucose molecule, and adding all three reactions together, there are equal numbers of each type of atom on each side of the equation, and the net reaction for the overall production and consumption of ethanol is just: Glucose itself is not the only substance in the plant that is fermented. The simple sugar  fructose  also undergoes fermentation. Three other compounds in the plant can be fermented after breaking them up by  hydrolysis  into the glucose or fructose molecules that compose them. Starch  and  cellulose  are molecules that are strings of glucose molecules, and sucrose  (ordinary table sugar) is a molecule of glucose bonded to a molecule of fructose. The energy to create fructose in the plant ultimately comes from the metabolism of glucose created by photosynthesis, and so sunlight also provides the energy generated by the fermentation of these other molecules. Ethanol may also be produced industrially from  ethene  (ethylene). Addition of water to the double bond converts ethene to ethanol: C2H4  + H2O CH3CH2OH This is done in the presence of an acid which  catalyzes  the reaction, but is not consumed. The ethene is produced from petroleum by  steam cracking. 5. 3Production Ethanol can be produced by various methods but the most commonly used in today’s world is by the method of fermentation and distillation of sugarcane, grains, corn etc. 5. 3. 1Ethanol from sugar cane The first stage in ethanol production is to grow a crop such as sugar cane. The sugar cane of cut down and undergoes fermentation and distillation. 5. 3. 2Fermentation Crushed sugar cane in placed in fermentation tanks. Bacteria in the tanks acts on the sugar cane and in time produce a ‘crude’ form of ethanol. This is then passed on to the ‘distillation stills’ where it is refined to a pure form. 5. 3. 3Distillation The impure/crude ethanol is heated in a ‘still’ until it vaporizes and rises into the neck where it cools and condenses back to pure liquid ethanol. The impurities are left behind in the still. The ethanol trickles down the condensing tube into a barrel, ready for distribution. When burned it produces fewer pollutants than traditional fuels such as petrol and diesel. Fig. 6 – Distillation process of impure/crude ethanol The production of petroleum is done by the fractional distillation of crude oil. 5. 3. 4Fractional Distillation The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called  fractional distillation. The steps of fractional distillation are as follows: 1. You  heat  the mixture of two or more substances (liquids) with different boiling points to a high temperature. Heating is usually done with high pressure steam to temperatures of about 1112 degrees Fahrenheit / 600 degrees Celsius. 2. The mixture  boils, forming vapor (gases); most substances go into the vapor phase. 3. The  vapor  enters the bottom of a long column (fractional distillation column) that is filled with trays or plates. The trays have many holes or bubble caps (like a loosened cap on a soda bottle) in them to allow the vapor to pass through. They increase the contact time between the vapor and the liquids in the column and  help to collect liquids that form at various heights in the column. There is a temperature difference across the column (hot at the bottom, cool at the top). 4. The  vapor rises  in the column. 5. As the vapor rises through the trays in the column, it  cools. 6. When a substance in the vapor reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance’s boiling point, it will  condense  to form a liquid. (The substance with the lowest boiling point will condense at the highest point in the column; substances with higher boiling points will condense lower in the column. ). 7. The trays  collect  the various liquid fractions. 8. The collected liquid fractions may  pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks, or they may  go to other areas for further chemical processing Fractional distillation is useful for separating a mixture of substances with narrow differences in boiling points, and is the most important step in the refining process. The oil refining process starts with a fractional distillation column. On the right, you can see several chemical processors that are described in the next section. Very few of the components come out of the fractional distillation column ready for market. Many of them must be chemically processed to make other fractions. For example, only 40% of distilled crude oil is gasoline; however, gasoline is one of the major products made by oil companies. Rather than continually distilling large quantities of crude oil, oil companies chemically process some other fractions from the distillation column to make gasoline; this processing increases the yield of gasoline from each barrel of crude oil. Fig. 7 – Fractional distillation of crude oil 5. 4Air pollution Compared with conventional  unleaded gasoline, ethanol is a particulate-free burning fuel source that combusts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and  aldehydes. Gasoline produces 2. 44  CO2  equivalent  kg/l and ethanol 1. 94. Since ethanol contains 2/3 of the energy per volume as gasoline, ethanol produces 19% more CO2  than gasoline for the same energy. The  Clean Air Act  requires the addition of  oxygenates  to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the United States. The additive  MTBE  is currently being phased out due to ground water contamination; hence ethanol becomes an attractive alternative additive. Annual Fuel Ethanol Production by Country (2007–2011)[2][64][65][66] Top 10 countries/regional blocks (Millions of U. S. liquid gallons per year)| World rank| Country/Region| 2011| 2010| 2009| 2008| 2007| 1|   United States| 13,900| 13,231| 10,938| 9,235| 6,485| 2|   Brazil| 5,573. 24| 6,921. 54| 6,577. 89| 6,472. 2| 5,019. 2| 3|   European Union| 1,199. 31| 1,176. 88| 1,039. 52| 733. 0| 570. 30| 4|   China| 554. 76| 541. 55| 541. 55| 501. 90| 486. 00| 5|   Thailand| | | 435. 20| 89. 80| 79. 20| 6|   Canada| 462. 3| 356. 63| 290. 59| 237. 70| 211. 30| 7|   India| | | 91. 67| 66. 00| 52. 80| 8|   Colombia| | | 83. 21| 79. 30| 74. 90| 9|   Australia| 87. 2| 66. 04| 56. 80| 26. 40| 26. 40| 10| Other| | | 247. 27| | | Table 2 – Annual fuel ethanol production by country Table 2 – Annual fuel ethanol produc tion by country | World Total| 22,356. 09| 22,946. 87| 19,534. 993| 17,335. 20| 13,101. 7| 5. 5Advantages Ethanol has a higher octane number (113) than regular unleaded gasoline (87) and premium unleaded gasoline (93). Complete combustion: Ethanol molecules contain 35 percent oxygen, and serve as an â€Å"oxygenate† to raise the oxygen content of gasoline fuel. Thus, it helps gasoline burn completely and reduces the buildup of gummy deposits. Prevent overheating: Ethanol burns cooler than gasoline. Fuel Type| Ethanol| Regular Gasoline| Premier Gasoline| E10 Gasohol| E85 Gasohol| Energy Content (/Gallons)| 84,600| 125,000| 131,200| 120,900| 90,660| Table 3 – Energy content of fuels Energy content: As shown in Table 2, fuel ethanol contains around 33 percent less energy content than regular gasoline. The energy content of gasohol blends (E10 or E85) is determined by the energy content of ethanol and gasoline, and their ratio. Emissions from ethanol are about 48% of diesel; it is lowest of any of the fuels. â€Å"The clean burning characteristics extend turbine life, possibly by as much as 100%. † (K. K. Gupta 2010) 5. 6Disadvantages Loss of power and performance – Pure ethanol is over 100+ octane, and provides the fuel with much of its octane rating. Because Ethanol burns at a lower temperature than the older (MTBE) gas, boaters can expect to see a 2 to 3 % drop in RPM. â€Å"Use of ethanol in the pure state or as a blend would probably require replacement of any white metal or aluminum in the system as well as some elastomers. † (K. K. Gupta 2010) 6. References Hydrogen Journal Papers G. L. Juste (2006) Hydrogen injection as additional fuel in gas turbine combustor. Evaluation of effects. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 31 (2006) 2112 – 2121 K. K. Gupta a,*, A. Rehman b, R. M. Sarviya b, (2010) Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2946–2955 P. A. Pilavachi (2000), Power generation with gas turbine systems and combined heat and power, Applied Thermal Engineering 20 (2000) 1421 ±1429 Paolo Gobbato*, Massimo Masi, Andrea Toffolo, Andrea Lazzaretto (2010) Numerical simulation of a hydrogen fuelled gas turbine combustor. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36 (2011) 7993- 8002 Nils Erland L. Haugena, Christian Brunhuberb and Marie Bysveena (2012) Hydrogen fuel supply system and re-heat gas turbine. Combustion Energy Procedia 23 ( 2012 ) 151 – 160 Website Pyromex ® Technology Description http://www. pyromex. com/index. php/en/pyromex-technology/technology-description Methanol Power alcohol â€Å"A Special Report: Burning Tomorrow’s Fuels,† Power, S14-S15, February 1979. â€Å"Test and Evaluation of Methanol in a Gas Turbine System,† Southern California Edison Company, EPRI Report AP-1712, February 1981. â€Å"Methanol. Clean Coal Stationary Engine Demonstration Project. Executive Summary,† California Energy Commission, Report P500-86-004, February 1986. Methanol Power Generation – Demonstration Test Starts for a Power Source at Peak Demand† Japanese High-Technology Monitor, 5 April 1993. â€Å"Ethanol blended fuels† – Rex Weber 2003 of Northwest Iowa Community College in cooperation with the Iowa Corn Promotion Board. â€Å"Fuel Ethanol† – Zhiyou Wen, Extension Engineer, Biological System Engineering, Virginia Tech John Ignosh, Area Specialist, Northwest District, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Jactone Arogo, Extension Engineer, Biological System Engineering, Virginia Tech How to cite Alternative Fuels: The industrial gas turbine, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

ROBOTS THEIR PAST AND FUTURE Essays - Industrial Robots

ROBOTS: THEIR PAST AND FUTURE Past: It was approximately 3,000 years ago when the first signs of a robot appeared. The Iliad mentions a mobile tripod and in the myth Jason and the Argonauts a giant sentinel by the name of Talos is talked about. These weren't real life robots, so when did the first robot appear. From what people think robots are today really is a far cry from the actual first robots. The abacus or bead-adding machine was the first computer and was used as far back as 1000 B.C.. Then there were Automatons which were scale models of creatures that moved. One of which used water to move it, it was called Hercules Killing the Dragon. It was made about 300 B.C. by Hero. William Oughtred in 1621 invented the rectilinear and circular slide rules which were used up to when the pocket calculator was invented. Throughout the 19th century a lot of inventors started to pop up with robotic inventions. In 1801 Joseph Jacquard made an automated loom which was the first numerically controlled machine. During the 1880's railroads used automated signals that used electricity. And then in 1898 Nikola Tesla invented the Radio- controlled boat. Before the 1900's though nobody had ever used the word robot until it was dubbed by Fritz Lang in 1926 in the movie Metropolis. In 1940 Issac Asimov first used the robotics. The first programmable machine was built in 1938 by Pollard and Roseland and was used for painting. In the late 30's and early 40's the first electronic computers were produced by John Atanasoff. Then with Howard Aiken's electromagnetic calculator. These computers weren't mass produced until 1951 when Mauchy and Ecker's UNIVAC I was produced as a commercial computer. In 1956 George Devol designed what would become the first programmable computer and acquired a U.S. patent for it in'61. The father of robotics, who accompanied Devol was Joseph Engelerger, they named the first robot Unimate. This was also the first commercial robot and was marketed that by Planet Corp. in 1959. The unimate was installed in '61 for a die casting machine. With this brings the start of artificial intelligence labs at MIT, Stanford, and the University of Edinburgh. Then in '68 a vision capable robot was built at Stanford. Also in '68 Unimation multirobots are sold to GM. The 1970's was the start of the computer age with company's like Intel, Vicarm Inc., Tandy Inc., and NASA developing new computer technologies. Intel made the first microprocessor in 1971. Cincinnati Milacron had the first commercially available minicomputer-controlled industrial robot. Vicarm was developed to market the Stanford arm invented in '70. Cray Inc. made the robot arms on the Viking 1 and 2 probes for NASA which lands on Martian surfaces. Tandy Inc. manufactured the TRS-80 home microcomputer. Then in the late '70's Unimation bought Vicarm and with GM made PUMA ( programmable universal machine for assembly). The 1980's brought a rise in robotics with a new company being started every month, one for instance was Transition Research Corp., started by the father of robotics Engelberger. Transition later develops HelpMate in '91 and changes the name of the company to HelpMate Robotics, Inc. With these few names were many more companies and inventors who changed the face of robotics to what we know today. With almost everything being animated to actual robotic in some shape or form. With real life robots being invented and thought up through history also comes the fictional part of the tale which usually steers people away from what a real robot is to some kind of emotional feeling android that ends up retaliating against its maker. Movies have a lot to do with the fictional part to entertain their viewers. Since the early robots were shaped into this form and became a man's friend instead of a helpful machine on the assembly line. Though I believe that this sometimes might bring out some good ideas and goals on the next futuristic robots and what they can do or help with. Since sometimes what people seen as fiction in movies 30 years ago is now being used everyday by the average household.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Eva Peron Argentinas Hero Essay

Eva Peron Argentinas Hero Essay Eva Peron: Argentinas Hero Essay Mario Espaà ±a 11-12-12 Spanish 3 4 Sra.lynch Eva Peron is a topic hard to understand because people have their own opinions of her. A lot of people could say she’s a hero to Argentina and other people would say she’s a prostitute. Everyone has their own opinion about her. She always stood up for Argentina especially the poor people which no one has interest in them. She changed that, she changed a lot of things she accomplished a lot in Argentina but does all this justify the means. I believe that her accomplishments outweighed her contributions because she does a lot for her country and it was all worth it at the end. Eva Peron accomplished a lot of things. She helped women a lot she gave them rights to have a divorce in Argentina because a lot of women use to get beat by their husbands till they were all swollen up and no one would say a thing or even try to help anyone. Eva traveled the country making speeches, distributing food, clothes, and household goods to the needy, visiting the poor, building homes, hos pitals, and schools, and rallying for higher wages for union workers. The real question is that did all her accomplishments outweigh her contributions? I agree because she accomplished many things in Argentina which this she contributed a lot because of the way she treated the poor she treated them very good which then they contributed by voting for Peron. Was all of this worth it though, this was because all of the political

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Complete List Weird Scholarships You Can Win (Updated)

Complete List Weird Scholarships You Can Win (Updated) SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You may have thought that scholarships were only for those who had great grades or were top athletes. Well, think again! There are a lot of organizations willing to give you some college cash in recognition of your interesting habits, unusual attributes, or willingness to do something a little bit quirky! Here's a complete collection of the best weird, unusual scholarships we could find. The good news is they're often a lot easier to apply to than other scholarships. Why Do These Weird Scholarships Exist? These scholarships mostly come from three main sources: Special Interest Groups and Clubs These organizations are very passionate about certain topics – like agriculture or the Klingon language – and they love to see students who share those passions. By offering these crazy scholarships, they're encouraging students to actively stay involved in these areas of interest. People Who Want to Help People Just Like Them You’ll notice a number of unique scholarships based on last name or physical features. These tend to be from people or groups who feel they are special for some reason, and want to share the wealth with others who are lucky enough to have the same trait. Quirky Companies Out for a Laugh Some of the most unusual scholarships are from companies that are just looking to have a good time, and they want to share the love with students who get their sense of humor and are willing to do something a little daring. So even if you didn't think you were the scholarship-winning type of student, remember that there are scholarship opportunities out there for almost anyone, including students who†¦. Scholarships for People With Interesting Physical Attributes The Scholarship for Redheads This scholarship is awarded to a natural red-head who is a junior or senior in high school with a GPA of 2.5+. You have to submit two photos to prove the authenticity of your gingery locks, and also create a creative piece – can be an essay, picture, or video, that tells what it means to you to be a red head. The deadline this year was May 4, and the prize is a one-time award of $500. The Tall Club Scholarship The Tall Club Scholarshipis awarded to exceptionally tall high school seniors. If you are female and over 5’10†, or male and over 6’2†, this scholarship could be for you! Apply through your local Tall Club (there are 53 branches nationwide). You’ll have to provide transcripts and test scores, letters of recommendation, details about extracurricular activities and awards, a photo and an essay.Awards vary by chapter but are up to $1,000. The deadline is March 1. The Left-Handed Scholarship If you're left-handed, you’re in luck! The Frederick and Mary F. Beckley Scholarshipfrom Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania is for you. Current students of Juniata College who are left-handed are allowed to apply for the award, which ranges from $1,000 - $1,500. Grades and financial circumstance are also taken into consideration. Scholarships for People Who Have Prepared for the End of the World (or Want to Save the World) Zombie Apocalypse Scholarship If you’ve spent time thinking over how you would fare if the world were overrun by the walking dead, then the Zombie Apocalypse Scholarship is for you! Students aged 13 and older can apply by writing a 250 word essay about what would happen if their school were overrun by zombies. The deadline is October 31, and the award is $2,000. Superpower Scholarship The Superpower Scholarship awards $2,500 to a student who, in 250 words or less, best answers the question, â€Å"Which superhero or villain would you want to change places with for a day and why?† You have to be 13 years of age or older to apply. The deadline is March 31st. Scholarships for People Who†¦Sound Like a Duck Chick and Sophie Major Duck Calling Contest High school seniors are eligible to compete for this scholarship in Stuttgart, Arkansas every fall. The student best able to woo ducks will be awarded $2,000. There are also prizes for second place ($1,000), third place ($750), and fourth place ($500). The competition is on November 23 this year. Scholarships for People Who Love Sweets, or Want to Be Sweets American Association of Candy Technologists John Kitt Memorial Scholarship College sophomores, juniors, and seniors who love candy so much that they want to study it should apply for this scholarship.You’ll need to be majoring in food, chemistry, or biological sciences with a GPA of 3.0 or higherand have shown an interest in candy technology through a project or research. One student will win a scholarship of $5,000. The deadline is in April. Flavor of the Month Scholarship TheFlavor of the Month Scholarship is open to students aged 13+ who write a 250-word essay that answers the question, â€Å"If you were an ice cream flavor, which would you be and why?† The prize is $1,500 and the deadline is July 31st. Scholarships for People Who REALLY Love Star Trek Starfleet Scholarship Program Trekkies are in luck when looking for college funding. TheStarfleet Scholarship Program awards up to $1,000 scholarships to students (senior year of high school or above) who have been Starfleet members for at least a year prior to applying. Applications are due in June. Klingon Scholarship If you are a Trekkie AND a language lover, you are even more in luck. Students majoring in a foreign language can receive scholarships from the Klingon Language Institute for showing a love of international languages. You do NOT need to know Klingon to qualify. Awards are $500 and the deadline is in June. Scholarships for People Who Have a Lucky Last Name John Gatling Grant Program This scholarshipat North Carolina State University awards $9,000 to in-state students and $18,000 to out-of-state students who are lucky enough to be born with the last name â€Å"Gatling† or â€Å"Gatlin†. You need to be able to show proof that you were born with the name, and the application is turned it at the same time you apply for financial aid. Charles Downer Scholarship Fund This scholarshipgives students attending Harvard and who have the last name â€Å"Downer† a chance to get some money. Preference is given to students from Vermont and who are descendants of Harvard graduates. Leavenworth Scholarship The Leavenworth Scholarshipat Hamilton College in New York is for – you guessed it – students with the last name â€Å"Leavenworth†. The award amount isn’t specified. Lambert and Annetje Van Valkenburg Memorial Scholarship Competition This competition awards $1,000 every two years to a student who can prove they are related to the Van Valkenburg family who immigrated to the USA from the Netherlands in 1643. The last name can have slight variations, but you’ll have to be able to prove the lineage. Applicants must write an essay about what the family heritage means to you. The award can be used at any university, and the deadline is March 1st. Zolp Scholarship Catholic students attending Loyola University Chicago with the last name Zolpare in for a treat – they are eligible to win money if they file their birth certificate along with their applications. Award amount varies depending on availability of funds and the number of applicants. Scholarships for People Who Have a Sense of Humor About Fashion Stuck at Prom The Stuck at Promcontest rewards couples who create entire prom outfits from Duck Tape, and then wear them to a school-organized prom. Applicants must submit photos of their handiwork – which is usually quite impressive! Each student in the winning couples gets a full scholarship for themselves, plus one individual grand prize winner gets a bonus. Every year there are 21 winners. First place is $10,000, second is $5,000, third is $3,000, and seven runner up couples get $500. The individual bonus is $500. Scholarships for People Who Are Hard-Core Gamers Gamers Helping Gamers This scholarshipis for fans of Magic: The Gathering. High school applicants must write four essays about how Magic has influenced them, how to improve the game, and what their academic and career goals are. Up to two awards of $5,000 will be given, and applications are due on March 31st. Scholarships for People Who Are Messy Eaters and Drinkers Milk Mustache Scholarship Do you tend to miss your mouth when consuming dairy products? Do you also attend (or plan to attend) college in Arizona? The Dairy Council of Arizona runs the Milk Mustache Scholarship for people like you! And applying doesn’t get much easier. Simply take a video that's 30 seconds or less that features your favorite dairy products.The video can be any style (funny, suspenseful, etc.) The contest opens in August, and weekly winners will be chosen between Septemberand November. Winnerswill receive cool prizes, like free tickets to football games at Arizona schools. At the end of the football season, several finalists will be chosen from the weekly winners to submit autobiographies, transcripts, and a letter of recommendation. These finalists will not only receive a great prize automatically – tickets to the Fiesta Bowl – but will also be eligible to win one of three cash prizes. The first place winner will get $12,000 in scholarship money, $10,000 will go to the second place student, and $8,000 to third place. Winners will be announced at the Fiesta Bowl. Scholarships for People Who Are Lazy and Sober The Deppen Scholarship and the Voris Auten Scholarship Do you stay away from drugs and alcohol? Do you also stay away from physical activity? If so, Bucknell University in Pennsylvania offers two endowed scholarships to students who fit that description and have also lived in Mount Carmel, PA for ten years and attended a Mount Carmel public high school. Scholarships for People Who Love to Write Essays Ayn Rand Scholarships If you want to get some practice writing essays on really long books, never fear! Short essays (of around 1,000 words on Ayn Rand'sreally long books can make you eligible to win some serious cash. Different topics are available depending on grade level. 8th, 9th and 10th graders can win between $30 and $2,000 for writing about Anthem; th and 12th graders can win between $50 and $10,000 for writing about The Fountainhead; and college students can win between $50 and $20,000 for writing about Atlas Shrugged. Deadlines vary based on which book you're writing about. Scholarships for People Who Hate to Write Essays No Essay Scholarship The No Essay Scholarshipclaims to be the easiest scholarship out there – no tedious essay writing here! College students (or prospective college students) simply need to enter their details online for a chance to win $2,000. A new winner is chosen every month, and you can re-apply as much as you like! Scholarships for People Who Love Sprinklers American Fire Sprinkler Association This scholarship isopen to almost anyone willing to put in a bit of effort! High school seniors can fill out the application form for the scholarship. Ten randomly chosen winners will get $2,000 each in scholarship money. No longer a high school senior? No problem. Enter the second chance contest for college students, and five winners will be awarded $1,000 scholarships. Scholarships for People Who Are Gay Pilots National Gay Pilots Association TheNational Gay Pilots Association gives LGBT students and allies who are interested in professional aviation a chance to help cover some college costs. Students should be at least 18 years old, have a private pilot license, have accomplishments in aviation, and have contributed to the LGBT community. Scholarship amounts vary. Scholarships for People Who Are Passionate About Specific Kinds of Food Vegetarian Resource Group Students who are committed to promoting a peaceful world through a vegetarian lifestyle can win up to $10,000 for school from the Vegetarian Resource Group.You’ll have to write an essay about your experience being vegetarian and promoting it within your community, and at least three letters of recommendation. One award of $10,000 will be given, as well as two $5,000 prizes. The deadline is February 19th, 2019. Beef Industry Scholarship On the opposite end of the spectrum, the Beef Industry Scholarshipawards ten $1,500 scholarships every year to high school seniors or undergrads who are pursuing careers in the beef industry. You’ll have to have demonstrated a commitment to the beef industry, write an essay about solving a problem in the beef industry, and have two letters of recommendation from professionals in the beef industry. And if your love affair with beef is long-lasting, you can re-apply every year! Asparagus Club Scholarship The National Grocers Association awards this scholarshipto college juniors and seniors who are pursuing careers in the grocery industry. Scholarships are $2,000 per semester and can be renewed for up to four semesters if a 2.5+ GPA is maintained. Up to ten scholarships are awarded per year. Scholarships for People Who Like to Make Others Laugh Make Me Laugh Scholarship This scholarshipfor you budding comedians out there. Students over the age of 13 can apply for a $1,500 scholarship by telling a funny or embarrassing story (real or made up) in 250 words or less that makes the judges laugh out loud. Deadline is August 31st. Scholarships for People Who Love Golf But Don’t Play It Western Golf Association Evans Scholars Foundation If you are dedicated to the art of being a golf caddie, you are in luck. TheWestern Golf Association Evans Scholars Foundation gives out hundreds of full-ride scholarships to students who can show a record of successful and regular caddying throughout high school (spanning at least two years). You should also have strong academics and a good ACT score, and be able to demonstrate financial need. The scholarships are available at 14 colleges across the country that have scholarship houses – winners are expected to be active members in the house. Applications are due October 31st. Scholarships for People Just Love Applying for Scholarships Scholarship For Aggressive Scholarship Applicants Debt.com sponsors this scholarship. The main idea? They want to award students who have shown persistence and courage in applying for all the free college money that is out there. All you have to do is apply for loads of scholarships (past winners have applied for over 30 each – and don’t worry, you don’t have to win them!) and send copies of the submission receipts, along with a letter saying a bit about yourself, your goals, and how you felt doing all those applications. You can win $500. The best part? They choose a new winner every 2 months, so you have a lot of chances to try for this one! What's Next? If you want to apply to some great scholarships not listed above, check out our guides to theNational Merit Scholarship,McDonald's Scholarship, andTylenol Scholarship. Did you know that sometimes getting a schoalrship is as easy as applying to your school of choice? Check out thislist of schools that automatically offer schoalrships based on grades and test scores. Need a letter of recommendation for a scholarship? Here's how to get one. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Final SEM paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Final SEM paper - Essay Example This means that the company helps individuals from when they are fifteen years old until when they die because it does not have an upper limit of the target population. The organization deals with all levels of Social Ecological Model (SEM). At the individual level, the institution helps smokers to quit smoking and divert their attention to beneficial projects. The organization advises smokers about the effects of their behavior and it helps them through counseling (Sanders, & Myers, 2007). At the community level, the company creates awareness to the public about heart diseases and the contribution of smoking to the disorder. The firm also enables the communities to understand the effects of smoking on the environment. The major effect is air pollution, which poses health dangers to the inhabitants of the world such as animals, plants, and human beings (WHF, 2008). Through this education, the institution encourages the community to quit from smoking and discourage those who are addicted to stop their consumption. The organization also addresses the issues of heart disease at the interpersonal level. At this level, the company engages smokers and non-smokers in counseling sessions. The counseling sessions help these groups of individuals to understand and help each other in improving health by avoiding factors that cause cardiovascular diseases. The World Heart Federation also addresses heart disease in organizations and also in policy formulation. The organization specifically advises the government in the countries where it operates to develop policies that reduce smoking; for example, the policy of creating smoking zones in a country to avoid effects of the behavior on secondary smokers (Riba, Wulsin, & Rubenfire, 2012). The company partners with other organization such as the American Heart Association to increase the awareness of causes, effects, and prevention measures of cardiovascular diseases (Riba, Wulsin, & Rubenfire, 2012). At